The Virtual Genome Project - links

We are building a list of helpful and instructive web sites and blogs devoted to the study and teaching of plasmid biology. We have also incuded individual articles that help explain the importance of plasmid biology. We invite your contributions. Please send the url of sites and blogs you feel are helpful to Dr. Eva Top, evatop [at]

Antibiotic Resistance

World Health Organization

World Health Organization - Fact Sheets

WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends. Who Fact Sheets provide a variety of information on a wide range of topics including Antimicrobial resistance and Antimicrobials: use outside human medicine and resultant antimicrobial resistance in humans.

Roar Project

Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network (ROAR) Project - Commensal Bacteria

"Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria of clinical relevance is threatening our ability to treat bacterial infections. Though commensal (normal) bacteria are suspected reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, little is known about the abundance, diversity, and distribution of resistance genes in commensal bacteria. The cross-species transfer of such genes from commensal to pathogenic bacteria, though supported by a growing body of scientific evidence, is equally poorly understood. Numerous mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer suggest that the frequency of resistance genes in commensals may act as a marker of the emergence of resistance in pathogens." - ROAR Project - about

Commensal Science For Non-Scientists : ROAR Database : ROAR Scientific Network and Listserv


Bioscience Education Network (BEN) - Antibiotic Resistance

The BEN Portal provides access to education resources from BEN Collaborators and is managed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Antibiotic Resistance - articles

Munich Re’s - article

Antibiotic resistance can also occur in rare diseases - Dr. Karsten Filzmaier

"For some time, the classic antibiotics such as penicillin have no longer helped against many bacteria. And humans are responsible for most of this resistance, by their uncritical use of antibiotics both in medicine and in intensive animal husbandry. But certain pathogens can apparently also develop resistance naturally."

The original paper
Welch TJ, Fricke WF, McDermott PF, White DG, Rosso M, et al (2007) Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in Plague: An Emerging Public Health Risk. PLoS ONE 2(3): e309. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0000309 :: pdf version


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The Virtual Genome Project is funded by the National Science Foundation Microbial Genome Sequencing Program, Grant number: EF-0627988.
For more information contact: Dr. Eva Top, Professor of Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, I.D. 83844-3051 U.S.A.
email: etop [at]

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